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In gastroenterology, studies are ongoing on colon cancer, Barrett’s Esophagus, fasting, and pancreas carcinoma.

Papers and conference proceeding can be found below.

Pilot Study: Detection of Gastric Cancer

Pilot Study: Detection of Gastric Cancer From Exhaled Air Analyzed With an Electronic Nose in Chinese Patients

Valérie N. E. Schuermans, MD, PhD1 page1image3832325152, Ziyu Li, MD, PhD2,
Audrey C. H. M. Jongen, MD1,3, Zhouqiao Wu, MD, PhD2,
Jinyao Shi, MD, PhD2, Jiafu Ji, MD, PhD2, and Nicole D. Bouvy, MD, PhD1,3


The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the ability of an electronic nose (e-nose) to distinguish malignant gastric histology from healthy controls in exhaled breath. In a period of 3 weeks, all preoperative gastric carcinoma (GC) patients (n = 16) in the Beijing Oncology Hospital were asked to participate in the study. The control group (n = 28) consisted of family members screened by endoscopy and healthy volunteers. The e-nose consists of 3 sensors with which volatile organic compounds in the exhaled air react. Real-time analysis takes place within the e-nose, and binary data are exported and interpreted by an artificial neuronal network. This is a self-learning computational system. The inclusion rate of the study was 100%. Baseline characteristics differed significantly only for age: the average age of the patient group was 57 years and that of the healthy control group 37 years (P value = .000). Weight loss was the only significant different symptom (P value = .040). A total of 16 patients and 28 controls were included; 13 proved to be true positive and 20 proved to be true negative. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 71%, with an accuracy of 75%. These results give a positive predictive value of 62% and a negative predictive value of 87%. This pilot study shows that the e-nose has the capability of diagnosing GC based on exhaled air, with promising predictive values for a screening purpose.

Presentations on DDW Washington

At the Digestive Disease Week (DDW) in Washington DC, held June 2-5 2018, the following topics were presented on Aeonose breath analysis studies:

  1. Liam Zakko, Kavel Visrodia, James Allen, Lori S. Lutzke, Magdalen A. Clemens, Kenneth K. Wang, ‘An electronic-nose device has fair ability to detect non-fasting state via breath sample analysis’,
  2. Kavel Visrodia, Liam Zakko, James Allen, Magdalen A. Clemens, Prasad G. Iyer, Lori S. Lutzke, Kenneth K. Wang, ‘Ongoing development of a screening test for Barrett’s Esophagus using electronic-nose device analysis of exhaled volatile organic compounds’,
  3. Hanneke Huiskamp, Maartje Bartelink, ‘Feasibility of an electronic nose for the detection of Inflammatory Bowel Disease’.

Conference proceedings on Barrett’s Esophagus, Mayo Clinics 2017

Visrodia K, Zakko L, Allen J, Lutzke L, Clemens M, Wang KK, ‘Developing a Screening Test for Barrett’s Esophagus Using Electronic Nose Device Analysis of Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds’, World Congress of Gastroenterology @ACG2017, Orlando, October 2017.

Zakko L, Chan DK, Visrodia K, Clemens MA, Allen J, Lutzke, LS, Leggett CL, Wang KK, ‘Detection of Barrett’s Esophagus via electronic-nose device analysis of exhaled volatile organic compounds in breath samples’, DDW, Chicago, May 2017.

Diagnosing gastrointestinal illnesses using fecal headspace volatile organic compounds


fecal VOC analysis with Aetholab

“In our own experience, we used the Aetholab, a commercial electronic nose device (The eNose Company, Zutphen, Netherlands) in a preliminary study of 20 C. difficile PCR-positive stool and 53 C. difficile PCR-negative stool. In a similar approach using an artificial neural network for pattern recognition, we were able to classify the stool with 80% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and 84% accuracy.”